The 1993 Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development was an integrated household survey similar in design to a World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey. The main component was a comprehensive household questionnaire that collected a broad array of information on the socio-economic condition of households. Households in Kwazulu-Natal province were re-surveyed from March to June 1998 for the Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study. Combining these two survey datasets has yielded a panel (or longitudinal) dataset in which the same individuals and households have been interviewed at two points in time, 1993 and 1998. These are the first two waves of the KIDS panel study. The third wave of the KIDS study, conducted in 2004, re-interviewed households contacted in 1993 and 1998. The institutions collaborating on the 2004 KIDS study included the School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
v1.1: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution
Version 1 of the 2004 data files became version 1.1 when the data was reconstructed to produce the current data files.
The following derived variables have been added to the roster files:
1. A new age variable, age_dob, has been calculated using date of interview and date of birth, if it was available, and the 1998 age and dates of interview if the 2004 data were missing or impossible (i.e. a date of birth later than the 1998 date of interview was reported in 2004 for someone who had been listed in 1998).
2. Total expenditure before death, tot_c_edt, was calculated for the death records.
Two files, income04 and expend04 have been included, which contain derived household income and expenditure variables. Syntax files used to create these are also available with the data, as a program library.
Wave 1 - 1993 - (This is a subsample of respondents from the Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development Study 1993, an LSMS study conducted by the University of Cape Town and the World Bank.
Wave 2 - 1998
Wave 3 - 2004
In the 2004 wave of the Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study new questions were added to the questionnaire. These included a section on the Child Support Grant, a module on recent deaths of household members, and a module with learning tests for children between the ages of seven and nine. The 2004 version also added a section on the work history of those aged between 24 and 30 at the time of interview. In 2004 the community questionnaire included new sections on local social networks in addition to sections on local economic activity, infrastructure, and prices.
The survey covers households in KwaZulu-Natal Province, on the east coast of South Africa.
The lowest level of geographic aggregation covered by the data is magisterial district
The Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study 2004 covered all household members.
Producers and sponsors
International Food Policy Research Institute
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Department of Social Development
Government of South Africa
School of Development Studies
University of KwaZulu-Natal
University of Wisconsin-Madison
UK Department of International Development
South African National Research Foundation
Norwegian Research Council
United States Agency for International Development
In the 2004 wave of the KIDS, due to the aging of the core members and the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, the study was extended in a complementary way to track and interview the households of the children of the core or the next generation. These are sons and daughters of core members older than 18, who have established a "new" household since 1993 (labeled as "K"). By establishing a new household we mean that these children are now living away from their own parents with their own children, or with the children of their partner. Using the next generation to keep track of family "dynasties" provides a way of refreshing the panel and establishing a generational transition. In addition, due to our interest in the impact on children of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the 2004 wave followed foster children to their new households. This group is defined as children aged less than 18 years old of core and next generation household members who no longer live with their parents i.e. no longer live in core or next generation households (labeled as "N"). As described in Appendix A, different questionnaire modules were administered in the core, next generation, and foster child households.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The 2004 wave of KIDS included a section on the Child Support Grant, a module on recent deaths of household members, and a module with learning tests for children between the ages of seven and nine. The 2004 version also added a section on the work history of those aged between 24 and 30 at the time of interview. The household questionnaire was necessarily quite involved and, to ensure data quality, survey enumerators were trained for over two weeks. Training included practice interviewing on non-sample households in the field and separate anthropometric training. The questionnaire took an average of three hours to complete and repeat visits were often required to avoid respondent fatigue. Finally, in all three waves of KIDS, community surveys were taken through interviews with key informants in each of the survey clusters. In 2004 the community questionnaire included new sections on local social networks in addition to sections on local economic activity, infrastructure, and prices.
International Food Policy Research Institute, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Social Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal. Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study (KIDS) 2004. [dataset]. Version 1.1. Washington, London, Durban, Pretoria: IFPRI, LSH, DSD, UKZN [producers], 2007. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/j638-tz61