The 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS) is part of the worldwide MEASURE DHS project which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
The principal objective of the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) is to provide current and reliable data on fertility and family planning behaviour, child mortality, adult and maternal mortality, children’s nutritional status, the utilization of maternal and child health services, knowledge of HIV/AIDS and prevalence of HIV/AIDS and anaemia.
The specific objectives are to:
- collect data at the national level which will allow the calculation of key demographic rates;
- analyze the direct and indirect factors which determine the level and trends of fertility;
- measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice of women and men by method, urban-rural residence, and region;
- collect high quality data on family health including immunization coverage among children, prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea and other diseases among children under five, and maternity care indicators including antenatal visits and assistance at delivery;
- collect data on infant and child mortality and maternal and adult mortality;
- obtain data on child feeding practices including breastfeeding and collect anthropometric measures to use in assessing the nutritional status of women and children;
- collect data on knowledge and attitudes of women and men about sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS and evaluate patterns of recent behaviour regarding condom use;
- conduct haemoglobin testing on women age 15-49 and children under age five years in a subsample of the households selected for the survey to provide information on the prevalence of anaemia among women in the reproductive ages and young children;
- collect samples for anonymous HIV testing from women and men in the reproductive ages to provide information on the prevalence of HIV among the adult population.
This information is essential for informed policy decisions, planning, monitoring, and evaluation of programs on health in general and reproductive health in particular at both the national and regional levels. A long-term objective of the survey is to strengthen the technical capacity of the Central Statistical Agency to plan, conduct, process, and analyse data from complex national population and health surveys. Moreover, the 2005 Ethiopia DHS provides national and regional estimates on population and health that are comparable to data collected in similar surveys in other developing countries. The first ever Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Ethiopia was conducted in the year 2000 as part of the worldwide DHS programme. Data from the 2005 Ethiopia DHS survey, the second such survey, add to the vast and growing international database on demographic and health variables.
Wherever possible, the 2005 EDHS data is compared with data from the 2000 EDHS. In addition, where applicable, the 2005 EDHS is compared with the 1990 NFFS, which also sampled women age 15-49. Husbands of currently married women were also covered in this survey. However, for security and other reasons, the NFFS excluded from its coverage Eritrea, Tigray, Asseb, and Ogaden autonomous regions. In addition, fieldwork could not be carried out for Northern Gondar, Southern Gondar, Northern Wello, and Southern Wello due to security reasons. Thus, any comparison between the EDHS and the NFFS has to be interpreted with caution.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-59
The 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Alcohol Consumption
- Anemia Questions–Questions or testing assessing prevalence/severity of iron-def. anemia among women or children
- Anemia Testing
- Birth Registration
- Female Genital Cutting
- Fistula Questions
- GPS/Georeferenced–Global Positioning System or Georeferenced Data
- HIV Behavior
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- HIV Testing
- Iodine salt test
- Malaria Module (bednets)
- Male circumcision
- Maternal Mortality
- Men's Survey
- Reproductive Calendar
- Social Marketing
- TB Questions
- Tobacco Use
- Vitamin A Questions
Producers and sponsors
Ethiopia. Population and Housing Census Commissions Office (PHCCO)
United States Agency for International Development
President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
United Nations Population Fund
The 2005 EDHS sample was designed to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the following domains: Ethiopia as a whole; urban and rural areas of Ethiopia (each as a separate domain); and 11 geographic areas (9 regions and 2 city administrations), namely: Tigray; Affar; Amhara; Oromiya; Somali; Benishangul-Gumuz; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP); Gambela; Harari; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. In general, a DHS sample is stratified, clustered and selected in two stages. In the 2005 EDHS a representative sample of approximately 14,500 households from 540 clusters was selected. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 540 clusters (145 urban and 395 rural) were selected from the list of enumeration areas (EA) from the 1994 Population and Housing Census sample frame.
In the census frame, each of the 11 administrative areas is subdivided into zones and each zone into weredas. In addition to these administrative units, each wereda was subdivided into convenient areas called census EAs. Each EA was either totally urban or rural and the EAs were grouped by administrative wereda. Demarcated cartographic maps as well as census household and population data were also available for each census EA. The 1994 Census provided an adequate frame for drawing the sample for the 2005 EDHS. As in the 2000 EDHS, the 2005 EDHS sampled three of seven zones in the Somali Region (namely, Jijiga, Shinile and Liben). In the Affar Region the incomplete frame used in 2000 was improved adding a list of villages not previously included, to improve the region's representativeness in the survey. However, despite efforts to cover the settled population, there may be some bias in the representativeness of the regional estimates for both the Somali and Affar regions, primarily because the census frame excluded some areas in these regions that had a predominantly nomadic population.
The 540 EAs selected for the EDHS are not distributed by region proportionally to the census population. Thus, the sample for the 2005 EDHS must be weighted to produce national estimates. As part of the second stage, a complete household listing was carried out in each selected cluster. The listing operation lasted for three months from November 2004 to January 2005. Between 24 and 32 households from each cluster were then systematically selected for participation in the survey.
Because of the way the sample was designed, the number of cases in some regions appear small since they are weighted to make the regional distribution nationally representative. Throughout this report, numbers in the tables reflect weighted numbers. To ensure statistical reliability, percentages based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases are shown in parentheses and percentages based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases are suppressed.
Note: See detailed sample implementation table in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 14,645 households were selected, of which 13,928 were occupied. The total number of households interviewed was 13,721, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent.
A total of 14,717 eligible women were identified in these households and interviews were completed for 14,070 women, yielding a response rate of 96 percent. One in two households were selected for the male survey and 6,778 eligible men were identified in this subsample of households, of whom 6,033 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 89 percent. The response rates are higher in rural areas than urban areas for both males and females.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
After the selection of the 540 clusters throughout the 11 administrative areas, a listing operation in the selected clusters starting from the month of October 2004 was conducted. For this purpose, training was conducted for 46 listers who had been recruited from all the regions to do the listing of households and delineation of EAs. A manual that described the listing procedure was prepared as a guideline and the training was conducted using classroom demonstrations and field practices. Instructions were given on the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) units to obtain locational coordinates for selected EAs. The listing was performed by organizing the listers into teams, with two listers per team. Seven field coordinators were also assigned from the head office to perform quality checks and handle all the administrative and financial issues of the listing staff. Supervision was carried out by the cartographic division of PHCCO to assess the quality of the field operation and the level of the accuracy of the GPS readings. Though the listing operation was aimed to be completed in three months, it was extended up to five months in some parts of the country, primarily because of a shortage of vehicles.
Prior to the start of the fieldwork, the questionnaires were pretested in all the three local languages, to make sure that the questions were clear and could be understood by the respondents. In order to conduct the pilot survey, 12 interviewers were recruited from the Amhara, Oromiya and Tigray regions. In addition to the new recruits, 14 senior staff members of PHCCO were trained for a period of three weeks to conduct the pilot fieldwork and serve as trainers for the main fieldwork. The pilot training which was conducted from January 24 to February 11, 2005, included training in blood sample collection for the anaemia and HIV testing. The pilot survey was conducted from 11-25 February 2005 in four selected sites. The areas selected for the pretest were urban Addis Ababa and both urban and rural parts of Mekele, Ambo and Debre Birhan areas. Based on the findings of the pretest, the household, the women’s and men’s questionnaires were further refined in all the three local languages.
TRAINING AND FIELDWORK
The recruitment of interviewers, editors and supervisors was conducted in the 9 regions and 2 city administrations taking into account language skills of the specific areas. Accommodation was arranged for the trainees as well as the trainers at a training site in Addis Ababa. The training of interviewers, editors and supervisors was conducted from March 14 to April 20, 2005. The Amharic questionnaires were used during the training, while the Tigrigna and Oromiffa versions were simultaneously checked against the Amharic questionnaires to ensure accurate translation. In addition to classroom training, trainees did several days of field practice to gain more experience on interviewing in the three local languages and fieldwork logistics.
A total of 271 trainees were trained in five classrooms. In each class the training was conducted by two senior staff members of PHCCO. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia conducted a session demonstrating and explaining the different family planning methods, while UNFPA and CDC conducted a session on HIV/AIDS. After the training on how to complete the household, women’s and men’s questionnaires was completed, an exam was given to all trainees. On the basis of the scores on the exam and overall performances in the classroom, 240 trainees were selected to participate in the main fieldwork. From the group 30 of the best male trainees were selected as supervisors and 30 of the best female interviewers were identified as field editors. The remaining 180 trainees were selected to be interviewers. The trainees not selected to participate in the fieldwork were kept as reserve.
After completing the interviewers’ training, the field editors and supervisors were trained for an additional three days on how to supervise the fieldwork and edit questionnaires in the field to ensure data quality.
Thirty male interviewers and 30 female interviewers were selected to attend the biomarker training. In addition, the 30 field editors also attended the training, as a backup to the biomarker interviewers. Thirteen regional laboratory technicians who were recruited from Private Laboratory Consortium Unit (PLCU) to serve as regional coordinators for the HIV testing were also trained, of whom 11 were eventually selected to supervise the blood collection. During the one-week biomarker training, six experienced experts from ORC Macro and EHNRI provided theoretical training followed by practical classroom demonstrations of the techniques for testing of haemoglobin and collection of dried blood spots from a finger prick for HIV testing. In addition to the classroom training, trainees did several days of field practice to gain more experience on blood collection.
A total of 30 data collection teams, each composed of four female interviewers, two male interviewers, one female editor, and a male team supervisor, were organized for the main fiedwork. Furthermore, the 30 field teams were organized into 11 regional groups, each headed by an experienced senior staff of PHCCO and accompanied by a regional coordinator from PLCU. The survey was fielded from April 27 to August 30, 2005. The fieldwork was closely monitored for data quality through regular field visits by senior staff from PHCCO, ORC Macro, and other member organizations of the Steering Committee. Data quality was also monitored through field check tables generated from completed clusters simultaneously data entered and produced during the fieldwork. Five senior experts from PHCCO were permanently assigned to monitor the fieldwork throughout the survey period by moving from one region to another. Continuous communication was maintained between the field staff and the headquarters through cell phones.
Fieldwork was successfully completed in 535 of the 540 clusters, with the 5 clusters not covered primarily due to reasons of inaccessibility. Two of these clusters were located in rural Oromiya, one in rural Somali, one in rural SNNP and one in urban Gambela. DBS samples were collected in 534 out of the 535 clusters and delivered to EHNRI for analysis. In one cluster in the Gambela Region, households refused to be finger-pricked for cultural and traditional reasons.
The questionnaire for each DHS can be found as an appendix in the final report for each study.
In order to adapt the standard DHS core questionnaires to the specific socio-cultural settings and needs in Ethiopia, its contents were revised through a technical committee composed of senior and experienced demographers of PHCCO. After the draft questionnaires were prepared in English, copies of the household, women’s and men’s questionnaires were distributed to relevant institutions and individual researchers for comments. A one-day workshop was organized on November 22, 2004 at the Ghion Hotel in Addis Ababa to discuss the contents of the questionnaire. Over 50 participants attended the national workshop and their comments and suggestions collected. Based on these comments, further revisions were made on the contents of the questionnaires. Some additional questions were included at the request of MOH, the Fistula Hospital, and USAID. The questionnaires were finalized in English and translated into the three main local languages: Amharic, Oromiffa and Tigrigna. In addition, the DHS core interviewer’s manual for the Women’s and Men’s Questionnaires, the supervisor’s and editor’s manual, and the HIV and anaemia field manual were modified and translated into Amharic.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor and roof of the house, ownership of various durable goods, and ownership and use of mosquito nets. In addition, this questionnaire was used to record height and weight measurements of women age 15-49 and children under the age of five, households eligible for collection of blood samples, and the respondents’ consent to voluntarily give blood samples.
The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49 years and covered the following topics.
- Household and respondent characteristics
- Fertility levels and preferences
- Knowledge and use of family planning
- Childhood mortality
- Maternity care
- Childhood illness, treatment, and preventative actions
- Anaemia levels among women and children
- Breastfeeding practices
- Nutritional status of women and young children
- Malaria prevention and treatment
- Marriage and sexual activity
- Awareness and behaviour regarding AIDS and STIs
- Harmful traditional practices
- Maternal mortality
The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-59 years living in every second household in the sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected similar information contained in the Women’s Questionnaire, but was shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history, maternal and child health, nutrition and maternal mortality.
The processing of the 2005 EDHS results began soon after the start of fieldwork. Completed questionnaires were returned periodically from the field to the data processing department at the PHCCO headquarters. A total of 17 new recruits had been trained for office editing/coding and data entry of the questionnaires. Guidelines for the editing/coding procedures had been issued and questions, which needed coding, were identified and a list of codes prepared. After the actual entry of the data began, additional data entry operators were recruited and entry was performed in two shifts. A total of 22 data entry operators and 4 office editors carried out data entry and primary office editing activities. Each of the questionnaires was keyed twice by two separate entry clerks. Consistency checks were made and entry errors were manually checked by going back to the questionnaires. A secondary editing program was then run on the data to indicate questions that showed inconsistency and these were also corrected by secondary editors. The data entry for the 535 clusters that started on 9 May 2005 was completed on 24 September 2005.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2005 EDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2005 EDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2005 EDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module. This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the survey report.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Population and Housing Census Commission Office (PHCCO), Ethiopia and ORC Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2005. Ref. ETH_2005_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.