The FinScope survey tool was developed by FinMark Trust as a nationally representative survey of consumer perceptions about financial services and issues. FinScope provides insights into how people source their income and manage their financial lives. It looks at the use of, and demand for, financial services as well as attitudes, vulnerability, coping behaviour and consumption patterns. By exploring the use of informal as well as formal financial products, FinScope aims to create a picture of the role that the formal and informal sectors play in a country’s financial market.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v1.0: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution
This version was first received by DataFirst from Financial Services Deepening Zambia (FSDZ) in November 2016. This is the first version that has been made available for public release.
Individuals: age, financial services used, financial behaviour, knowledge of financial products and institutions, bank status, access to transport, constraints on financial product access, unexpected events, self-reported quality of life, employment, asset ownership, insurance, credit access, business operations, savings behaviour, cellphone access, household facilities, psychological health, marital status, education, language, literacy.
The survey covered all usual household residents age 16 and above in Zambia.
Producers and sponsors
Bank of Zambia
Private Sector Development Reform Programme
Much like the previous survey in the series, the Finscope 2005 used a stratified, multi-stage cluster sampling approach. Stratification was done at the province and urban/rural level before cluster sampling was performed using enumerator areas as PSUs. The sampling frame for the survey was developed by the Zambian Central Statistical Office (CSO) based on the 2000 Zambian population census. The survey used three-stage stratified cluster sampling to create the sample population. Stratification was done at the province and urban/rural levels before cluster sampling was performed using enumerator areas as PSUs. 400 EAs were selected with probability proportional to size. Within each EA, 10 households were randomly selected. In the third stage, one eligible (aged 16 and above) member of the household was randomly selected using a Kish grid. Further details of the sampling methodology are provided in Annex 1 of the final report for the 2009 Zambian Finscope.
Final_weight: this weight variable appears to be the post-stratified weight. When applied, it gives population totals that agree with what we assumed is a demographic model informed by Zambian Census 2000 figures.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Preparation for the fieldwork included a questionnaire pre-test, the training of CSO field staff and the piloting, finalisation and reproduction of the questionnaire.
To test the length, flow and translation of the questionnaire, a pre-test was conducted based on purposive household selection in eight residential areas in Lusaka. Forty interviews were conducted by the CSO/M&N technical working group, which comprised five interviews for each language, including English. The questionnaire was revised taking into account the results of this pre-test and in preparation for the fieldwork training.
A 10-day training programme was conducted in October 2009 and was attended by 80 interviewers, 13 supervisors, two data programmers, two data entry supervisors, 10 data entry officers and five office editors. Specific topics covered during the training included:
• Background to FinScope and objectives of FinScope Zambia 2009;
• Survey methodology;
• Questionnaire content;
• Listing, sampling and reporting procedures to be followed, and;
• Quality control procedures.
All fieldwork procedures, protocols and methodologies were documented in a comprehensive fieldwork manual which was provided to participants during training.
The training also included a field practical (pilot) in four areas, two within a rural (Chongwe) district and two within an urban (Lusaka) district. This exercise focused primarily on enabling the interviewers and supervisors to gain experience in administering the listing forms and questionnaire to ensure maximum efficiency during the main fieldwork.
Following the completion of the fieldwork, the questionnaire and translations were finalised, taking into account minor issues that were highlighted during the pilot. The final questionnaires and listing forms were reproduced in sufficient quantities for the fieldwork.
Fieldwork took place between October and December 2009 and was carried out by 13 teams. Each team consisted of one supervisor, six or seven interviewers and a driver. The fieldwork was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved listing all the households in the selected EAs which was done to update the 2000 Census data and ensure accuracy of the data weighting and validation process. During the listing, each household was given a serial number to enable the random sampling of 10 households from the EA for the purpose of data collection. The second phase involved the random selection of one respondent aged 16 years and above from each of the 10 households using the Kish grid. Data collection was carried out through face-to-face interviews with the selected respondents.
Two call backs were allowed for each selected respondent in addition to the initial contact. In cases where selected respondents were not available or refused to be interviewed, a substitution procedure was followed.
A total of 4 000 interviews were successfully completed.
Central Statistics Office
M & N Associates
A single questionnaire was used for the Zambian Finscope 2009. The questionnaire design phase included 14 focus group discussions and the facilitation of a stakeholder workshop in August 2009, which was attended by a broad cross-section of stakeholders within the financial sector.
These activities assisted in adapting the FinScope Zambia 2005 questionnaire to include notable developments that had taken place in Zambia’s financial sector and economy as a whole since the first survey was conducted, while at the same time allowing for comparisons with the 2005 data.
The revised questionnaire was translated into Zambia’s seven vernacular languages and included questions on the following topics:
• Household information and demographics
• Farming and fishing
• Income and expenditure
• Access to infrastructure
• Financial literacy and awareness
• Attitudes and perceptions towards finance
• Product penetration and banking
• Informal finance
Prior to data capture, a data entry programme was developed, tested and refined using the Census and Survey Processing (CSPro) software package. This process was carried out in close consultation with FinMark Trust to ensure that the survey indicator values could be calculated. Nine data operators and two data supervisors were trained to familiarise them with the data entry programme and also to facilitate their understanding of the questionnaire.
The completed questionnaires were checked before being captured. Data inputting was carried out from November to December 2009, after which the data was cleaned, weighted, validated and converted into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Following the submission of preliminary findings to the FSDP Secretariat by FinMark Trust, a second validation procedure was performed in January using additional population projections and other survey data. This resulted in slight adjustments to the weighting. Further information on the cleaning, weighting and validation process is available in Annex 2 of the 2009 Report.
DataFirst did some editing of the data before release. The original version of the Zambian Finscope 2009 had a large number of geographic variables, many of which ended up being excluded. Some were excluded because they weren't actually usable without a private codebook, others because they could potentially lead to identification of individuals in the dataset. The final set of geographic variables included were province, district, and an urban/rural binary variable.
The original datafile also contained a number of variables that detailed surveyor, supervisor, and visitation information. These were also excluded from the distributed datafile. Also excluded were variables used only for informing placement in the Kish grid.