Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2003-2004
Income/Expenditure Survey [hh/ies]
The Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES 2003-2004) internationally known as the Budget Survey, is the second of its kind to have been conducted in independent Namibia after the NHIES 1993-1994. Budget surveys are specialized statistical frameworks for monitoring and evaluation of socioeconomic policy performances on the one hand and on the other instruments for updating statistical infrastructure such as providing the basis for the re-basing of both National Accounts and the Consumer Price Index (CPI). According to the international best practices budget surveys should be undertaken at least once in five years. The purpose for this recommended frequency is to ensure the provision of relevant data timely to policy makers. However, budget surveys are quite costly due to their methodological requirement, which dictate that the data collection phase should cover a full calendar year. The expenditure on NHIES 2003-2004 up to date is in the range of Forty Million Namibian Dollars (N$ 40 million).
The main objectives of the NHIES 2003-2004 include providing data necessary for policy making at different sectors and levels as well as to evaluate and monitor various development programs. Hence the data would be used for the evaluation of the performance of NDP1 in the improvements of the welfare of Namibian people. It could also be used for estimation of benchmark indicators for the monitoring of development initiatives such as Second Development Plan (NDP2), Vision 2030, Poverty Reduction Strategy for Namibia, and National Human Resources Plan. The data will also be used in the National Accounts compilations, updating the basket of goods and services and the weights for the national consumer price index, welfare and poverty studies and nutritional studies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
v1: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution.
The survey covers household characteristics and particulars of each person in the household, age, education, marital status, employment, housing, access to water, toilet facilities, sources of income, ownership, access to clinic, farming, cost of housing, services, expenditure and income.
Producers and sponsors
Namibia Statistics Agency
National Planning Commission
Swedish International Development Agency
Technical and financial support
The target population of the NHIES2003/04 was the private household population of Namibia; i.e. excluding the institutional and homeless populations.
The sample design for the survey was a stratified two-stage cluster sample where the first stage units were geographical areas designated as PSUs and the second stage units were the households. The first stage units were selected from the sampling frame of PSUs using probability proportional to size sampling coupled with systematic sampling procedure. At the second stage households were selected systematically from a current list of households within the PSU, which was compiled just before survey interviews.
Sample size was determined in order to make reliable estimates at the regional and urban/rural levels within each region. It was also decided to represent both urban and rural strata in every survey round to eliminate seasonal effects. The number of households per PSU was fixed at 20.
The final sample consisted of 10,920 households in 546 PSUs. The selected PSUs were randomly allocated to the 13 survey rounds so that each survey round would constitute a random sample of 42 PSUs and 840 households. A survey round was a period of 4 weeks, during which the households participated in the survey.
Total number of households in the survey - 10,920,
Number of respondent households - 9,801,
Response rate - 90%,
Non-respondent households - 10%,
Refusals - 0.9%,
Non-contacts - 4.3%,
Incomplete data - 4.3%,
Other reason to non-response - 0.5%.
The data was raised from sample level to totals (population, households, consumption etc.) for Namibia using the sample weights. Sample weights were calculated based on the probabilities of selection at each stage. The final sample weights were the product of the first and the second stage weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The NHIES 2003/2004 was conducted under the provisions of the Statistics Act 66 of 1976.
The fieldwork of the NHIES 2003/2004 started with the deployment of Regional Supervisors, Assistant Regional Supervisors, Team Supervisors, Listing Clerks and Interviewers in all thirteen administrative regions of the country. There were two major fieldwork activities: the main survey activity, which was undertaken from 1 September 2003 to 29 August 2004, comprising of 13 survey rounds, and the Post Enumeration Survey (PES) undertaken in October 2004. The main objective of the PES was to serve as a quality check of the main survey.
Logistics for data collection included provision of vehicles, materials, equipment and supplies to the field staff. About 60 vehicles were acquired for the survey, whereas additional ones were leased from Government Garage and car rental firms.
Two questionnaires (Form 1 and Form 2) were developed for data collection in the survey. Form 1 collected individual information including age, education, marital status, etc. and household information such as type of dwelling, assets, and details on household expenditure and income. Form 2, the Daily Record Book (DRB), was designed for recording, on a daily basis, all households’ transactions during the survey round. Households were instructed to record transactions, item by item, all expenditures and receipts, including incomes and gifts received or given out.
The questionnaires received from the regions were registered and counterchecked at the survey head office. The data processing team consisted of programmers and data typists.
The data capturing process for the NHIES was undertaken in the following ways: Form 1 was scanned, interpreted and verified using the "Scan", "Interpret" & 'Verify" modules of the Eyes & Hands software respectively. Some basic checks were carried out to ensure that each PSU was valid and every household was unique. Invalid characters were removed. The scanned and verified data was converted into text files using the "Transfer" module of the Eyes & Hands. Finally, the data was transferred into a SQL database for further processing, using the "TranScan" application. The Daily Record Books were manually entered and this was carried out after the scanned data has been transferred to the database. The reason was to ensure that all DRBs were linked to the correct Form 1, i.e. each household’s Form 1 was linked to the corresponding Daily Record Books. In total, 10 000 questionnaires (Form 1), comprising around 400 questions each, were scanned and almost one million transactions from the Form 2 (DRBs) were captured.
Public use files, available to all
Namibia Statistics Agency. Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2003-2004.Version 1. Namibia Statistics Agency [producer and distributor].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.