This is an investigation into the challenges faced by small-scale tobacco farmers in Zimbabwe. 381 small-scale tobacco farmers in Manicaland province of Zimbabwe were interviewed for the survey. 74% of farmers in the survey sample are contract farmers. That is, they have contracts with tobacco leaf companies which determine their production and prices. in exchange the farmers receive technical advice and other support, such as fertilizer and seed, or transportation costs. The rest were independent farmers.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Individuals and establishments
v1: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution
The survey collected the following data from small-scale tobacco farmers in Zimbabwe: Farmers' credit and debt (reasons for credit, credit amount in US dollars, creditor information), farm size, type and size of labour force, average annual turnover in US dollars, aspiration to become an independent farmer, availability of financial records, and expectations of profit, social support during financial need, and experience with and opinion of the Tobacco Industry and Marketing Board. The survey also collected data on farmers' health and compensation for illness, and use of protective gear for tobacco farming.
Occupational health and safety
The survey was undertaken in the Manicaland province of Zimbabwe.
The data was collected at the level of individual farm
The population of interest is small scale tobacco farmers in Manicaland province of Zimbabwe.
Producers and sponsors
Research on Economics of Excisable Products (REEP), University of Cape Town
African Capacity Building Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
The farmers were chosen for the survey based on the size and location of their farms. The areas covered were Odzi, Shamhu and Headlands in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. Smallholder tobacco farms of more than 37 hectares were selected. The sample may not be nationally representative of small-scale tobacco farmers (and possibly not even provincially representative). However, 74% of the farmers in the survey sample are contract farmers, and according to Zimbabwe's Tobacco Industry Marketing Board, 80% of tobacco farmers in Zimbabwe operate under the contract system. Thus the survey findings are generalisable to some extent.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Ethics Approval for Data Collection
Data collection of the survey received ethics approval from the University of Cape Town on 19/02/2019
A survey questionnaire was used to collect information from contract or independent farmers