The COVID-19 Vaccine Survey (CVACS) is a South African national panel study of individuals initially unvaccinated against COVID-19. CVACS is implemented by the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU) based at the University of Cape Town. The same respondents are interviewed twice, a few months apart, in 2021 and then 2022, to gather information about their attitudes, beliefs and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination. The purpose of CVACS is to collect high quality, timely, and relevant information on facilitators and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake - including vaccine hesitancy and access constraints - to contribute to the development of data-driven campaigns and programmes to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake in South Africa.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
v1.1: Edited anonymised data for public distribution
Version 1.0.0 of the data from CVACS Survey 1 had an error in the value label of the variable s1_age_intervals, which has been corrected in version 1.1.0.
CVACS measures multiple outcomes, such as vaccination knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (including specific concerns); vaccination intentions (plans to get vaccinated), vaccine access constraints, and information seeking.
CVACS was not designed to be, and should not be used as a prevalence study. The data cannot be considered to be nationally representative of all unvaccinated individuals in South Africa.
The data is at the country level. Because of the size of the sample, it is not advised to generate any aggregate results at sub-national levels including at the level of province or lower levels of geography.
Producers and sponsors
Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit
University of Cape Town
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Telephone Interview [cati]
CVACS was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee (EiRC) of the Faculty of Commerce, University of Cape Town on 9 November 2021.
A single survey instrument was administered for CVACS Survey 1 using computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). The CVACS questionnaire was translated into all South African languages and interviews were conducted in the preferred language of the respondent. The realized Survey 1 sample consisted of 3510 individual interviews, all of whom self-reported that they were unvaccinated for COVID-19. Most of the survey questions collected individual-level data, with some household level data also collected through the individual questionnaire.
University of Cape Town
Public access data for use under a Creative Commons CC-BY (Attribution-only) License
COVID-19 Vaccine Survey (CVACS) 2021, Survey 1 [dataset]. Version 1.1.0. Cape Town: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation [funding agency]. Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit [producer], 2021. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/82ww-5r26