The political freedoms ushered in by the post 1994 transition were seen at that time as the basis for redressing long-standing economic deprivations suffered by the majority of the population. The reduction of poverty, in all its dimensions, was the goal. Made up of 11 chapters, this authoritative volume explores poverty and labour market issues over the first decade of democracy in South Africa. It is an attempt by leading South African scholars, supplemented by the work of international scholars working on South Africa, to take stock of the first post-apartheid decade, to assess the evolution of poverty, inequality, human needs and unemployment, and to relate this evolution to the policy stances and interventions of the first government elected freely by all South Africans. Based on this assessment, the papers individually, and the overview chapter in particular, draw implications for policy in the second post-apartheid decade. The volume will be of interest to researchers, graduate students, and to the technical staff of international agencies and government ministries.