Several areas in the Cape Flats had plummeted into war zones. Attacks on police stations and the homes of alleged gangsters continued unabated, as did the gang related violence. While Pagad itself has undergone serious internal conflict between the moderate and more militant factions, a wide range of individuals, community organisations and leaders have criticised not only Pagad, but also expressed growing disillusionment with the legal and political institutions of the Western Cape and the National Government. This prompted the Public Opinion Service (POS) to undertake a two-year study of citizen action against crime in the Cape Flats. It focuses primarily on the dynamics, which led to the rise of Pagad in the Western Cape. This study looked into the people's perceptions of crime, their evaluations of the police and courts, and their willingness to co-operate with such institutions. It also examines the attitudes of people on the law, their willingness to take various forms of legal and illegal collective action against crime as well as their evaluations of Pagad.