Malaria is one of the leading causes of disease, suffering and deaths in the world, with the highest burden on the most vulnerable population. It is estimated that around 350 to 500 millions clinical malaria disease episodes occur annually. Around 60% of the cases and 80% of deaths occur in sub- Saharan Africa. Of the more than one million Africans who die from malaria each year, most are children under five years of age. In 2000, malaria was the principal cause of around 18%, or 803 000 deaths of African children under five years of age. Malaria is also an important indirect cause of death, for example, through malariarelated maternal anaemia in pregnancy, low birth weight and premature delivery. The World Health Organization (WHO) Member States endeavored to alleviate the burden of the disease through various strategies, from eradication to new technologies such as longlasting insecticide- treated nets (LLINs) and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). The fight against malaria and the progress made in the African Region was driven by strategies developed and advised by WHO and Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners for implementation through three main strategies: Eradication era, Accelerated Implementation of Malaria Control (AIMC), RBM and subsequent initiatives. Monitoring and evaluation of malaria interventions was always a concern of policy-makers and planners throughout the fight against malaria, although it was not always clearly designed or implemented. During the eradication era (from the Second World War to the 1970s) through to the Global Malaria Control Strategy (GMCS, 1993), clear objectives were set to be monitored and evaluated. Monitoring and evaluation during (1997-1998) were based on an activity tracking system (ATS) and periodical intercountry and country reviews. This article discusses the monitoring and evaluation approaches during the RBM era (1998 to the present).