In an earlier paper, the author identified the role of maternal social characteristics on child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa through statistical analysis (Iyun, 1992; GeoJournal, 26(1), 43–52). This follow-up analysis attempts to further analyze and determine the relative significance of environmental and maternal factors on childhood mortality in two contrasting towns in southwestern Nigeria. The research design takes advantage of the integration of the medical and social sciences. The results of the current analysis reveal interesting insights into child mortality and maternal factors on one hand and domestic environmental conditions on the other. They give credence to an ecological perspective as a way to understand the complexities behind child survival. Domestic environmental conditions were stronger predictors of child mortality in the more developed study town, Ota, than the more traditional town, Iseyin. However, in both sites maternal factors, in particular age of mother at marriage, age of mother at first childbirth and parity were statistically significant predictors of child mortality. Mother’s education was only significant in the more urbanized center, and generally remains inconsistent in its relationship with child mortality. Furthermore, child mortality rates continued to be a function of an environmental factor, namely source of drinking water, and a child care behavior factor, where the child was kept when mother was at work, especially the market environment.