The objective of this paper is to identify demographic, social and behavioural risk factors for HIV infection among men in Zambia. In particular, the role of alcohol, condom use and number of sex partners is highlighted as being significant in the prevalence of HIV. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the latest cross-sectional population-based demographic health survey for Zambia (2007). The survey included socioeconomic variables and HIV serostatus for consenting men (N=4434). Risk for HIV was positively related to wealth status. Men who considered themselves to be at high risk of being HIV positive were most likely to be HIV positive. Respondents who, along with their sexual partner, were drunk during the last three times they had sexual intercourse were more likely to be HIV positive (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.56). Men with more than two sexual life partners and inconsistent condom use had a higher risk for being HIV positive (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.45–2.46; and OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10–2.02, respectively). HIV prevention programmes in Zambia should focus even more on these behavioural risk factors.