This paper examines the initial e?ects of the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in January 1997 on school entry in Uganda. Given that advanced age at school entry has historically been associated with primary school dropout, the paper focuses on the the e?ects of fee elimination on the age at which a child enters school. Data from the 2000 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey and 2001 Education Data Survey are employed to examine the e?ects of UPE on the probability that a child begins attending school before age nine. School fee elimination under UPE is found to cause a 3% increase in this probability on average. E?ects are found to be particularly pronounced for girls and for children in living in rural areas.