Uganda has the one of the oldest recognised AIDS epidemics. The first people found to be sick with AIDS in 1982 in southwestern Uganda became infected in the mid-1970s. For several years, Uganda has been widely recognised as the first and most dramatic African success story, with estimated national HIV prevalence falling from about 15 per cent in 1992 to 5 per cent in 2001. This is truly good news! As the epidemic proceeds through its third decade, many observers suggest that Uganda's prevention efforts are a model to follow. What is the situation there, and what can we learn from Uganda?