Although in Ghana information on HIV infection and prevention, both in terms of quality and quantity, has increased considerably within the past few years, available literature indicates that behaviour change is yet to correspond with the amount of information and education provided. The objective of this study is to examine factors that influence condom use among women in Ghana in the context of HIV/AIDS prevalence. Data for this study are from the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS) and the study population (N=5 691) was analysed using logistic regression with the Health Belief Model (HBM) as an explanatory tool. The outcome variable for this study is condom use during last sexual intercourse. The HBM identifies perception of HIV/AIDS risks, awareness of its seriousness, knowledge about prevention, and confidence in condom use as predictors of safe sexual activity. Results show that the proportion of women reporting use of condoms remains tremendously low, in both the rural and urban areas. In the urban areas, only 15% of women reported having sex with condom during their last intercourse, whereas in the rural areas the proportion is even lower (10%). However, multivariate analyses based on the HBM components show that speaking with a partner about how to avoid AIDS (Odds Ratio = 1.63) and perceived benefits of using condoms (Odds Ratio = 1.54) are notable factors that predict condom use. Overall, the study points out that with the exception of perceived severity, the HBM can be applied to understand condom use among the study population. It will be important to emphasise all components of the HBM and empower women with condom negotiation skills.