The relationship between health and labour market outcomes is of academic and policy interest due to the essential role the labour market plays in engendering economic growth. It is in this regard that this thesis is both timely and essential especially in light of scant literature on the health-labour market relationship in South Africa. South Africa presents an interesting case for a study of this nature as it had experienced high disease burden and mortality, coupled with declining labour force participation in the period prior to this study. Furthermore, the relationship between health and labour market earnings as well as impairment-related wage discrimination is not well-known in South Africa. Therefore, this thesis sought to establish the relationship between health on the one hand, and labour force participation, wage determination and wage discrimination on the other, in South Africa. Data was obtained from the first and third waves of the National Income Dynamics Study (collected in 2008 and 2012 respectively), a rich and nationally representative survey dataset of South African households.