This dataset documents the variety of discarded cigarette packs available in Mongolia, specifically in the capital city (Ulaanbaatar) and 2 provinces (Dornod and Bayan Ulgii). Both of these provinces border China and the Russian Federation. Discarded cigarette packs were collected from the ground or from the top of waste bins. Packs were collected over three rounds of data collection (round 1: April 2017, round 2: August/September 2017 and round 3: May/June 2018). 7494 packs were collected in round 1, 5852 packs in round 2 and 6258 packs in round 3. The dataset consists of 25 variables which describe each pack in detail, including information on excise tax stamps, health warnings, tar and nicotine levels, brand name, name of manufacturer, and importer, among others. This data is freely available on the DataFirst data repository (https://www.datafirst.uct.ac.za/dataportal/index.php/catalog/772) after creating a user profile. This data was used for a research article titled “The impact of tax increases on illicit cigarette trade in Mongolia” which was published by Tobacco Control in 2019 (https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2019/06/18/tobaccocontrol-2018-054904). The paper is co-authored by Ross H, Vellios N, Batmunkh T, Enkhtsogt M and Rossouw L.